Name: Al-Sayed Muhiyuddin Abu Muhammad Abdul Qadir al-Gilani al-Hasani wal-Hussaini
Titles: Ghaus-e-Azam, Mahboob-e-Subhani, Qutb-e-Rabbani, Peeran-e-Peer
Silsila: Qadri (Founder)
Predecessor: Hazrat Abu Saeed Mubaarak Makhzoomi (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ)
Date of Birth: 470 Hijri, 1077 AD
Date of Wisaal: 561 Hijri, 1166 AD
Date of Urs: 17th , Rabi-us-Sani. (celebrated on 11th , Rabi-us-Sani)
Resting at: Baghdad, Iraq.
About Gaus Pak:
Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jelani رضي الله عنه was a noted Hanbali preacher, Sufi sheikh and the eponymous founder of the Qadiri Sufi order (selsela). He was born in Ramadan AH 470 (about AD 1077) in the Persian province of Gilan (Iran) south of the Caspian sea. His contribution and renown in the sciences of Sufism and Sharia was so immense that he became known as the spiritual pole of his time, al-Gauth al Azam (the “Supreme Helper” or the “Mightiest Succor”). His writings were similar to those of al-Ghazali in that they dealt with both the fundamentals of Islam and the mystical experience of Sufism.
Parents and Early Life:
Abdul Qadir Jilani رضي الله عنه was a Sufi master and Syed (descendant of the Prophet Muhammad) from both his father and mother. His father Abu Saleh Jangidost رحمتہ اللہ علیہ, was an illustrious and God-fearing man. Once while engrossed in meditation by the bank of a river he saw an apple floating down the river. He picked it up and ate it. It struck to him that he ate the apple without paying for it so he set out in search of the owner, on the bank of the river and at last reached the owner of the apple orchard “Abdullah Somai رحمتہ اللہ علیہ” whom he requested to tell him the price of the apple, Abdullah Somai رضي الله عنه replied that it was an expensive thing. Syed Abu Saleh رحمتہ اللہ علیہ replied that he had not much by way of worldly material but he, could serve him for compensation. Abdullah Somai رحمتہ اللہ علیہ then asked him to work for a year in the orchard. In course of time the duration was extended several times.
In the end Abdullah Somai رحمتہ اللہ علیہ admitted that he had served him in excess of the price and desired to reward him. Abu Saleh رحمتہ اللہ علیہ hesitated in accepting it but when Abdullah Somai رحمتہ اللہ علیہ persisted, he relented.He said he had a daughter, blind of eyes, handicapped of hands and feet and wanted to give her in marriage to him. In this way Abu Saleh رحمتہ اللہ علیہ was married to Abdullah Somai’s رحمتہ اللہ علیہ daughter, Syeda Fatimah رضي الله عنه. To his astonishment found her wondrously beautiful and wholesome. He complained to his father-in-law that he found her exactly the opposite to what he had described her. Abdullah Somai رحمتہ اللہ علیہ insisted on the truthfulness of his statement. She was blind because she had not seen any Ghair Mehram (a man who could marry her). She was mute because she had not uttered a word repugnant to the Shariah (Islamic law). She was deaf because she had not heard anything inconsistent with the Shariah. She was handicapped of hand and feet because she had never moved in the direction of evil.
Abdul Qadir Jilani’s رضي الله عنه father died soon after and the young orphan was reared up by his mother and his grandfather, Abdullah Somai رحمتہ اللہ علیہ.
At the age of 18 he went to Baghdad on AH 488 (1095 AD), where he pursued the study of Hanbalite law under several teachers. His mother sewed 40 gold coins in his quilt so that he might spend them when needed. The dacoits struck the caravan on the way, and looted all the travelers of their belongings. They asked him what he had. He replied that he had 40 gold coins. The dacoits took his reply for a joke and took him to their chief, who asked him the same question and he again replied that he had 40 gold coins. He demanded him to show, upon whom he tore away, the quilt and produced the gold coins. He was surprised and asked him why he had given the hidden gold coins when he could have kept them hidden. Young Abdul Qadir Jilani رضي الله عنه replied that he was travelling to Baghdad to receive education and his mother had instructed him to speak the truth. This left a deep effect on the chief of the dacoits and he gave up looting.
Abdul Qadir jilani رضي الله عنه received lessons on Islamic Jurisprudence from Abu Said Ali al-Mukharrimi رحمتہ اللہ علیہ, Hadith from Abu-Bakra-bin-Muzaffar رضي الله عنه, and commentary (tafseer) from the renowned commentator, Abu Muhammad Jafar رحمتہ اللہ علیہ.
In Sufism, his spiritual instructor was Shaikh Abu’l-Khair Hammad رحمتہ اللہ علیہ. From him, he received his basic training, and with his help he set out on the spiritual journey. Abu Shuja رحمتہ اللہ علیہ’ was also a disciple of Shaikh Hammad رحمتہ اللہ علیہ, once he said: “Shaikh Abdul Qadir was in the company of Shaikh Hammad, so he came and sat in front of him, observing the best of good manners, until he stood up and took his leave. I heard Shaikh Hammad say, as soon as Shaikh Abdul Qadir had left: ‘This non-Arab has a foot that will be raised, when the proper time comes, and placed upon the necks of the saints of that time. He will surely be commanded to say: This foot of mine is upon the neck of every saint of Allah. He will surely say it, and the necks of all the saints of his age will surely be bent at his disposal.”
Hazrat Junayd Baghdadi رحمتہ اللہ علیہ (died AD 910), who died about 167 years before the birth of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani رضي الله عنه, predicted about him on one occasion, when he was performing meditation & during that he said: “His foot will be over all Saints’ necks.” After finishing meditation, his disciples asked him about his words, he replied: “One Sufi would be born in the future, who would be greater than all saints.” Thus, Shaikh Hammad رحمتہ اللہ علیہ proved the words of Hazrat Junayd رحمتہ اللہ علیہ as right. The historians says that, later Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani رضي الله عنه also repeated the same words on many occasion by himself.
Spiritual Lineage (Shajra Mubarak):
Hazrat muhammad Mustafa صلى الله عليه و سلم
The Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه
Sheikh Hasan Basri رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Habib Ajami رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Dawood Taiee رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Ma’ruf Karkhi رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Sari Saqati رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Junayd al-Baghdadi رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Abu Bakr Shibli رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Tamimi رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Abu al-Fadl Abu al-Wahid al-Tamimi رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Abu al-Farah Tartusi رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Hakari رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Abu Sa’id al-Mubarak Mukharrami رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani رضي الله عنه
Popular Sufi Sheikh:
After completion of education, Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani رضي الله عنه abandoned the city of Baghdad, and spent twenty-five years as a wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq as a recluse. He was over fifty years old by the time he returned to Baghdad, in AH 521 (AD 1127), and began to preach in public. His hearers were profoundly affected by the style and content of his lectures, and his reputation grew and spread through all sections of society. Not only Muslims, but also Jews and Christians, not only caliphs and viziers but also farmers, merchants and traders allegedly altered their lives in response to Abdul Qadir jilani’s رضي الله عنه perorations. He moved into the school belonging to his old teacher al-Mukharrimii رحمتہ اللہ علیہ, there he engaged himself in teaching. Soon he became popular with his pupils. In the morning he taught hadith and tafseer, and in the afternoon held discourse on mysticism and the virtues of the Qur’an. The number of students increased so much that the seminary could no more contain them. He, therefore, decided to extend the premises of the seminary. The students and the people willingly came forward with their wholehearted contributions. The campus buildings were ready in AH 528 and thereafter it came to be known as Madarsai-e-Qadriya.
Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani رضي الله عنه was a Non-Arab (ajami), so he wasn’t fluent in Arabic and was having some difficulties because of it. Once The Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم came to him in a dream, before the time of the midday prayer (Zuhr), and he said to him: “O my dear son, why do you not speak out?” He replied: “O dear father, I am a Non-Arab man. How can I speak fluently in the classical Arabic language of Baghdad?” Holy Prophet said: “Just open your mouth!” He opened his mouth, and The Holy Prophet put his saliva seven times in his mouth. A few moments later, Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib رضي الله عنه also came & did the same to him six times. And from that time, Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani رضي الله عنه spoke classical Arabic language with fluency, his memory increased and he felt some great positive spiritual changes in him.
Once some one asked Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani رضي الله عنه about Mansur Al-Hallaj رحمتہ اللہ علیہ, he replied: “His claim extended too far, so the scissors of the Sacred Law (Shari’a) were empowered to clip it.”
He busied himself for forty years in the service of the Islam from AH 521 to 561. During this period hundreds embraced Islam because of him and organized several teams to go abroad for the purpose. He arrived in Indian sub-continent in AD 1128, and stayed at Multan (Pakistan). He died in AH 561 (AD 1166) at the age of 91 years, and was buried in Baghdad.
The King of Jinns:
Bushair bin Mahfooz رحمتہ اللہ علیہ states that once my daughter, Fatima, all of a sudden vanished from the roof of my house. I got worried and want to the blessed presence of Sayyed-e-na Ghouse-e-Pak رضي الله عنه and requested for help. He told me to go to Karkh, and during the night sit in a deserted place forming a fort (Hisar) around myself. Over there think about them and say:” Bismillah” During the darkness of night groups of Jinns will pass by you, their faces will be very strange, do not get scared by looking at them, at the time of sahari the KING OF JINNS will come to you and will ask you about your requirement. Tell him, “Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani has sent me from Baghdad (my requirement is that) you search my daughter.”
Hence, I went to the ruins of ‘Karkh’ and followed the instructions of Huzoor Ghous-e-Azam رضي الله عنه. During the silence of night, horrifying Jinns kept on passing outside my hisar. The faces of the Jinns were so horrifying that I could not look at them. At the time of sahari, the KING OF JINNS came on a horse back, there were Jinns surrounding him. He asked my demand from outside the hisar. I told him that Huzoor Ghous-e-Azam رضي الله عنه has sent me to you. As soon as he heard this, he got down the horse and sat on the ground. The other Jinns too sat outside the hisar.
I narrated the incident of the disappearance of my daughter. He announced amongst all the Jinns, “Who has taken the girl?” Within moments the Jinns caught a Chinese Jinn and presented him as the culprit. The King of the Jinns asked him why did you pick the girl up from the city of the Highest Cadre in Spiritual Pivot (Qutub) of the time? He said, while shivering, Your Highness! After looking at her I fell in love with her. The King ordered the Chinese Jinn to be beheaded and returned my wonderful daughter to me. I thanked the King of the Jinns and said, as Allah will! You are an ardent lover of Sayyed-e-na Ghouse-e-Pak رضي الله عنه. He then replied, “I SWEAR UPON ALLAH WHEN HUZOOR GHOUS-E-PAK رضي الله عنه LOOKS TOWARDS US, ALL THE JINNS START TREMBLING. WHEN ALL NOMINATES AS QUTUB OF TIME THEN ALL THE JINNS AND HUMANS ARE ORDERED TO FOLLOW HIM.” (Bahjaa-tul-Asraar)
All the Jinns start trembling (with fear) on hearing your name. Your Have that majestic awe ‘O, Ghous-e-Azam Dastgir.
Titles of Ghaus E Azam
To those familiar with the religious and spiritual tradition of Islam, here is a list of Shaykh Abd ‘al-Qadir al Jilani’s Radi Allahu ta’ala anhu names, surnames, and the many titles conferred upon him by his devoted followers and contemporaries.
“The Supreme Helper” (or, “The Mightiest Succour”). Ghawth is an Arabic word meaning:
A cry for aid or succour.
Aid, help, succor; deliverance from adversity.
The chief of the Saints, who is empowered by Allah to bring succour to suffering humanity, in response to His creatures’ cry for help in times of extreme adversity.
“The Sultan of the Saints.” This reinforces the preceding title, emphasizing the supremacy of the Ghawth above all other orders of sanctity.
Qutb al A’zam
The Greatest Qutb and the biggest helper of people in need.
Qutb al Rabbani
The Divine or Devout Qutb
“Pole” …. One or more human beings who occupy a pivotal spiritual position in the world. Synonymous with Ghawth according to al-Shafi’i.
The pir of pirs. Pir is persian for spiritual guide.
The beloved of Allah
A term applied throughout the Islamic world to respected persons of recognised seniority in learning, experience and wisdom. Its basic meaning in Arabic is “an elder; a man over fifty years of age. (The spellings Sheikh and Shaykh may also be encountered in English language publications.)
“Our Master, the Shaykh.” A writer who regards himself as a Qadiri, a devoted follower of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir, will generally refer to the latter as-Sayyaduna [our Master], or Sayyidii [my Master].
“Father of Muhammad.” In the Arabic system of nomenclature, a man’s surnames usually include the name of his first-born son, with the prefix Abuu’ [Father of–].
“Reviver of the Religion.” It is widely acknowledged by historians, non-Muslim as well as Muslim, that Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir displayed great courage in reaffirming the traditional teachings of Islaam, in an era when sectarianism was rife, and when materialistic and rationalistic tendencies were predominant in all sections of society. In matters of Islamic jurisprudence [fiqh] and theology [kalaam], he adhered quite strictly to the highly “orthodox”school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
Abd’al-Qadir or Abdul Qadir
This is the author’s personal name,meaning “Servant [or Slave] of the All-Powerful.” (The form ‘Abdul Qadir, which the reader may come across elsewhere, is simply an alternative transliteration of the Arabic spelling.) It has always been a common practice, in the Muslim community, to give a male child a name in which ‘Abd is prefixed to one of the Names of Allah.
A surname ending in -i will often indicate the bearer’s place of birth. Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir was born in the Iranian district of Gilan, south of the Caspian Sea, in A.H. 470/1077-8 C.E. (In some texts, the Persian spelling Gilani is used instead of the arabicized form al-Jilani. The abbreviated form al-Jili,which may also be encountered, should not be confused with the surname of the venerable ‘Abd al-Karim al-Jili, author of the celebrated work al-Insan al-Kamil,who came from Jil in the district of Baghdad)
Let us now consider a slightly longer version of the Shaykh’s name, as it occurs near the beginning of Al-Fath ar-Rabbani [The Sublime Revelation]: Sayyaduna ‘ash-Shaykh Muhiyu’d-Din Abu Muhammad ‘Abdal-Qadir (Radi allahu ta’ala ‘anhu).
“The descendant of both al-Hasan and al-Husayn, the grandsons of the Most Beloved Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace).” To quote the Turkish author, Shaykh Muzaffer Ozak Efendi (may be pleased with him) : “The lineage of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir is known as the Chain of Gold, since both his parents were descendants of the Most Beloved Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace). His noble father, ‘Abdullah, traced his descent by way of Imam Hasan (Allah bestow His mercy upon him): while his revered mother, Umm al-Khair, traced hers through Imam Husayn (Allah bestow His mercy upon him).”
As for the many other surnames, titles and honourific appellations that have been conferred upon Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, it may suffice at this point to mention al-Baz al-Ashhab [The Gray Falcon].
Radi allahu ta’ala ‘anhu
“May Allah be well pleased with him!” This benediction is the one customarily pronounced–and spelled out–in writing after mentioning the name of a Companion of the Most Beloved Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). The preference for this particular invocation is yet another mark of the extraordinary status held by Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir in the eyes of his devoted followers.
Finally, we must note some important elements contained within this even longer version: al-Ghawth al-A’zam Sultan al-Awliya’ Sayyaduna ‘ash-Shaykh Muhiyi’d-Din ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani al-Hasani al-Husayni (Radi allahu ta’ala ‘anhu).
Faizaan-e-Ghaus-e-Azam: A’la Hadrat (radi Allahu anhu) wrote in his “Fatawa Razvia” that there are 11 names from amongst the names of Huzoor Ghaus-e-Azam (alaihir rahmah) that are a means of gaining blessings and freedom from hardships. If these names are recited during calamities, illness or in one’s home and business then the reciter will gain much benefit.
These names are as follows:-
Sayyid Muhiy’yud’deen (alaihir rahmah)
Sultaan Muhiy’yud’deen (alaihir rahmah)
Qutub Muhiy’ud’deen (alaihir rahmah)
Khwaja Muhiy’yud’deen (alaihir rahmah)
Makhdoom Muhiy’yud’deen (alaihir rahmah)
Wali Muhiy’yud’deen (alaihir rahmah)
Baadshah Muhiy’yud’deen (alaihir rahmah)
Sheikh Muhiy’yud’deen (alaihir rahmah)
Maulana Muhiy’yud’deen (alaihir rahmah)
Ghaus Muhiy’yud?deen (alaihir rahmah)
Khaleel Muhiy’yud’deen (alaihir rahmah)